Community policing has its roots in Boston with the rising gun and gang violence of the 21th century. This strategy of neighborhood policing arose from the inefficient and malpractices that previous policing strategies produced when dealing with the influx of new crime. The Boston Police relied on riot-oriented tactics and aggressive policing tactics to solve crime by expecting its officers to "go in, kick butts, and crack heads." This method, coupled with newly forming crime, and allowing for the officers to use their own discretion, resulted in hyper aggressive cops indiscriminately subjecting its civilians particularly minorities to discriminatory police practices. These injustices committed by the Boston Police did not go unnoticed and quickly garnered controversy calling the department to change its tactics. This resulted in a change in leadership within the department and by 1993 Commissioner Evans instituted "same cop same neighborhood" policy. This promoted responsibility for cops patrolling their districts and accountability for solving problems or crime within their community using problem oriented strategies to prevent and deter future crime rather than aggressively pursuing active crimes.